Born into a scholarly family at the outset of the Tang (T’ang) Dynasty, he enjoyed a classical Confucian education. Surviving the rigors of forbidding deserts and mountains and narrowly escaping the jaws of death, he passed through the central Asiatic regions of Turfan, Karashahr, Tashkent, Samarkand, and Bactria. Hsuan Tsang … The universe consists in an infinite number of possible ideas that lie inactively in storage. Faxiang is the Chinese translation of the Sanskrit term dharmalaksana (characteristic of dharma), referring to the school’s basal emphasis on the unique characteristics of the dharmas that make up the world, which appears in human ideation. Another Chinese scholar I-Tsing, spent ten years at Nalanda in late 7th century. An imperial decree by the Emperor Taizong (T’ai-tsung) forbade Xuanzang’s proposed visit to India on the grounds on preserving national security. The appellation of the school originated with the title of an important fourth- or fifth-century CE text of the school, the Yogacarabhumi-sastra. Spatiotemporal determination would be impossible — experiences of object X are not occurrent everywhere and at every time so there must be some external basis for our experiences. Under the influence of his elder brother, a Buddhist monk, however, he developed a keen interest in Buddhist subjects and soon became a monk himself at the age of thirteen. [Photo: from Yunan Pictorial] Ranvijay Sinha is an enthusiast of Chinese language. Indeed, Xuanzang became Silabhadra’s disciple in 636 and was initiated into the Yogacara lineage of Mahayana learning by the venerable abbot. Born as the youngest of four brothers, Hsuan Tsang accompanied his older brother Chang-tsi, who was a Buddhist monk, to a Pure Land Buddhist temple where he was ordained a monk at the age of thirteen (Beal xviii). The former was based upon a dualism of Nature and Spirit. Answer to: Who was Hsuan-Tsang? The prospect of a merger between these schools is regularly broached. The narrative of Hsuan-tsang 's travels resumes with a record of his journey southwards to the Andhra country. According to this doctrine, sentient beings possess eight distinct layers of consciousness, the first five — the visual consciousness, auditory consciousness, olfactory consciousness, gustatory consciousness, and tactile consciousness — corresponding to the sense perceptions, the sixth discriminatory consciousness to the thinking mind, the seventh manas consciousness to the notion of ego, and the eighth alaya-consciousness to the repository of all the impressions from one’s past experiences. The subtle psychology of China saw in the travels of Hsuan-tsang the cosmogony of classical texts like the "Inner Chapters" of the Zhuangzi (c. 300 BC). Comprised in this development of consciousness theory is the concept of conscious justification — phenomena that are presumably external to us can never exist but in intimate association with consciousness itself. He studied in the University of Nalanda. It soon became apparent to Xuanzang that Qu Wentai, although most hospitable and respectful, planned to detain him for life in his Court as its ecclesiastical head. From the Uigur Text of the Life of Hsuan-tsang… And in particular, it is this last consciousness that the Mere-Consciousness is all about. The site exists about 33 km west of Nalanda University and the Mahavihara in Ekangalsarai block of Nalanda district, native place of Kumar. Hsuan tsang reported that, at Nalanda University, the number of teachers was 1,500 and of learners 10,000. Hsuan-tsang (sometimes transcribed Xuan Tsang or Xuanzang) was a Chinese Buddhist monk who in 627 AD traveled overland from China to India to obtain Buddhist scriptures. During his travels, he visited places that we today know as Pakistan, Nepal, Bangladesh, and – of course – India. However, these events also had the effect of encouraging charismatic Buddhist teachers to build their own organizations and institutions—including universities—separately from BAROC. A burning desire for firsthand clarification prompted Hsüan Tsang to leave for India in 627, stealthily, as it was against the law to travel abroad. Yogacara is also the original source for the theory of the three bodies of the Buddha, and greatly expands the notions of categories of elemental constructs. Hsuan Chuang University (HCU; Chinese: 玄奘大學; pinyin: Xuán Zhuǎng Dàxué) is a private Buddhist university in Xiangshan District, Hsinchu City, Taiwan. It is also known as the Consciousness-Only School. Depicted in the novelis the hard journey that Hsuan-tsang, an eminent monk, andhis three followers make across west China to India to fetchBuddhist scripture. Founded in 1997 by the Ven. Lan Ji-fu, ed. In response, Xuanzang undertook a hunger strike until the king relented, extracting from Xuanzang a promise to return and spend three years in the kingdom upon his return. When Xuanzang requested to take Buddhist orders at the age of thirteen, the abbot Zheng Shanguo made an exception in his case because of his precocious sapience. This creativity is manifested at different levels of consciousness. Hallucinations can be determined because they do not possess pragmatic results. Journey to the West is probably the most influential one ofthe four classic novels in the Chinese literature and surelythe best-known one on foreign lands. Hsuan Tsang was born in AD 602 at present day’s Henan province, China. Reporter: Luo Laiming and Chen Ziqi. Mahisasaka sutras, sastras and Vinaya: 22 Corresponding to this threefold version of the modes of existence is the tri-body doctrine of the Buddha — the Dharma Body, the Reward Body, and the Response Body, a creed that was put into its systematic and highly developed theory by Yogacara thinkers. Surviving the rigors of forbidding deserts and mountains and narrowly escaping the jaws of death, he passed through the central Asiatic regions of Turfan, Karashahr, Tashkent, Samarkand, and Bactria. Hsuan-tsang left detailed accounts of his travels, and also wrote about the interaction between Chinese Buddhism and In… Moreover, the second objection can be met by recourse to the wider Buddhist religious framework. Subsequent studies in India included hetu-vidya (logic), the exegesis of Mahayana texts such as the Mahayana-sutralamkara (Treatise on the Scripture of Adorning the Great Vehicle), and Madhyamika (“Middle-ist”) doctrines. Such a notion is commonly referred to as “Mind Only.”. According to legend, Silabhadra (529-645), abbot of Nalanda, was considering suicide after years of wasting illness when he received instructions from deities in a dream, commanding him to endure and await the arrival of a Chinese monk in order to guarantee the preservation of the Mahayana tradition abroad. In addition, the philosophy of this school, with its abstruse terminology and hairsplitting analysis of the mind and the senses, was too alien to be accepted by the practical-minded Chinese. As a creative and elaborate exposition of Vasubandhu’s Trimsika-vijnapti-matrata-siddhi (Treatise in Thirty Stanzas on Consciousness Only) rendered by Xuanzang in 648 at Great Happiness Monastery, it synthesizes the ten most significant commentaries written on it, and becomes the enchiridion of the new Faxiang School of Buddhist idealism. Hsuan-tsang is believed to have travelled from China to research Buddhism and had come across Nalanda University that he described as “azure pool winds around the monasteries, adorned with the … Hsuan-Tsang, Prajna-Deva, Jnana-Prabha Correspondence; A. Upon his return to Chang’an in 645, Xuanzang brought back with him a great number of Sanskrit texts, of which he was able to translate only a small portion during the remainder of his lifetime. Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press, 1997. Hsiian-tsang, our Buddhist Pausanias and Marco Polo combined, to whose travels from China across Central Asia to India and back in the second quarter of the seventh century a.d. we owe such ample … He came in India in 633 AD i.e. Without any reference to the tathagatagarbha itself, the Vijnaptimatratasiddhi-sastra firmly grounds its pan-consciousness upon Absolute Suchness or the existence of the mind as true reality. Hiuen Tsang … These “germs” develop into form, feeling, perception, impulse, and consciousness, collectively known as the Five Aggregates. The name of the Madhyamika School, founded by Nagarjuna (2nd century CE), derives from its having sought a middle position between the realism of the Sarvastivada (Doctrine That All Is Real) School and the idealism of the Yogacara (Mind Only) School. In view of the foregoing, philosophers of this school have constantly essayed to explain in detail how karmic force actually operates and affects us on a concrete, personal level. How-To Tutorials; Suggestions; Machine Translation Editions Yin-lun (Treatises on the science of Inference): 36 Hsuan Tsang was also a great scholar. He came in India in 633 AD i.e. As an early and influential Chinese Buddhist monk, Xuanzang embodies the tensions inherent in Chinese Buddhism: filial piety versus monastic discipline, Confucian orthodoxy versus Mahayana progressivism, etc. When the glory of Nalanda University was at its peak, Hieun Tsang had come to India in 633 AD to study Buddhism and mysticism. His great-grandfather was an official serving as a prefect, his grand-father was appointed as Professor in the National College at the capital, and his father was a Confucianist of the rigid conservative type who gave up office and withdrew into seclusion to escape the po… The character in question, 奘, has two pronunciations, one associated with its "bound" form, and the other with its unbound and stative-verb form; they have slightly different ranges of denotations. This briefer version appears here with permission of the editor. Another famous Chinese … 602 – 664), born Chen Hui / Chen Yi (陈祎), was a Chinese Buddhist monk, scholar, traveler, and translator who traveled to India in the seventh century and described the interaction between Chinese Buddhism and Indian Buddhism during the early Tang dynasty. In other words, external objects do not exist; nothing exists outside the mind. His rendition of the Mahayana-samparigraha-sastra (Compendium of the Great Vehicle) by Asanga provided a sound base for the Sanlun (Three-Treatise) School, which preceded the Faxiang School as the vehicle of Yogacara thought in China. Its appearance although objective and external is in fact the transcendental illusion, because of which consciousness is bifurcated into the subject-object duality. The monastery is named after Xuanzang (602-64), known as Hsuan Tsang in India, a famous Buddhist monk and scholar from China who travelled to India in the seventh century. Answer to: Who was Hsuan-Tsang? After the death of Xuanzang’s father in 611, his older brother Chensu, later known as Changjie, became the primary influence on his life. Hsuan-tsang (ca. Hsüan-tsang Forges a Link Between China and IndiaOverviewThough Fa-hsien in the fifth century was the first Chinese Buddhist pilgrim to visit India, the trip by Hsüan-tsang more than two centuries later was equal if not greater in terms of historical significance. *600-664) is the greatest translator of Buddhist texts into Chinese along with Kumarajiva. Deeply confused by myriad contradictions and discrepancies in the texts, and not receiving any solutions from his Chinese masters, Xuanzang decided to go to India and study in the cradle of Buddhism. As spelled on all school signage, "Hsuan Chuang" follows the Wade-Giles phonetic standard that would equate to Pinyin Xuán Zhuǎng (but not zàng). The three elements (seed, manifestation, and perfume) turn on and on, Yogacara attacked both the provisional practical realism of the Madhyamika School of Mahayana Buddhism and the complete realism of Theravada Buddhism. In Prayag, or Allahabad as it is known to many, Hsuan Tsang From the Chinese Text of the Life of Hsuan-tsang; B. Although founded by Buddhists, Hsuan Chuang University is broadly indistinguishable from other lower-tier private universities in Taiwan. It is through Xuanzang and his chief disciple Kuiji (K’uei-chi) (632-682) that the Faxiang (Fa-hsiang or Yogacara/Consciousness-only) School was initiated in China. Princeton University Library One Washington Road Princeton, NJ 08544-2098 USA (609) 258-1470 Finally comes the awareness of the objects of thought via sense perceptions and ideas. The whole external world is, hence, an illusion according to it. Following them, the school divided into two branches, the Nyayanusarino Vijnanavadinah (Vijnanavada School of the Logical Tradition) and the Agamanusarino Vijnanavadinah (Vijnanavada School of the Scriptural Tradition), with the former sub-school postulating the standpoints of the logician Dignaga (c. AD 480-540) and his successor, Dharmakirti (c. AD 600?-680?). In which university did hsuan tsang study Indian lad vows to be a cultural ambassador in China. According to Thomas Watters, the total number of texts brought by Xuanzang from India to China is six hundred and fifty seven, enumerated as follows: Mahayanist sutras: 224 items It is therefore unreal when consciousness is the sole reality. University of California, Los Angeles: creatorOf: Xuanzang, ca. On account of the school’s idealistic accent it is known as Weishi (Wei-shih) or Ideation Only School; yet because it is concerned with the specific character of all the dharmas, it is often called the Faxiang School as well. From the Uigur Text of the Life of Hsuan-tsang; 3. During the glorious days of Nalanda University, Hiuen Tsang came to study Buddhism and mysticism in India. Chinese traveler, Hsuan Tsang, amply demonstrates. Dharmagupta sutras, Vinaya, sastras: 42 map. Thus, it is a storehouse where all the pure and contaminated ideas are blended or interfused. Madhyamika is regarded as the nihilistic or Emptiness School, whereas Yogacara is seen as the realistic or Existence School. In each phase of his career as a translator, Xuanzang saw his task as introducing Indian Buddhist texts to Chinese audiences in all their integrity. Besides, this school argues that not all beings possess pure seeds and, therefore, not all of them are capable of attaining Buddhahood. Instead of feeling deterred from his long-standing dream, Xuanzang is said to have experienced a vision that strengthened resolve. Xuanzang appears to have combined these two systems into each other in a more eclectic and comprehensive Mahayanism. A "contest" was held to decide the name of the new school, but none of the hundreds of entries were used. In 2008, the school was reevaluated by Taiwan's Ministry of Education, as a result of which one-third of its departments were placed on probation. Liu then forced Hsuan Tsang’s mother Wen-Ch’iao to marry him. Sammitiya sutras, sastras and Vinaya: 15 Tsang was fully ordained at twenty. Reality is to be viewed as an Idea or a Will. Besides translating Buddhist texts and dictating the Da tang xi yu ji in 646, Xuanzang also translated the Dao de jing (Tao-te Ching) of Laozi (Lao-tzu) into Sanskrit and sent it to India in 647. Traditional sources report that Xuanzang’s arrival in Chang’an was greeted with an imperial audience and an offer of official position (which Xuanzang declined), followed by an assembly of all the Buddhist monks of the capital city, who accepted the manuscripts, relics, and statues brought back by the pilgrim and deposited them in the Temple of Great Happiness. See pp. Its central doctrine is that only consciousness (vijnanamatra; hence the name Vijnanavada) is real, and that mind is the ultimate reality. This is the only translation by Xuanzang that is not a direct translation of a text, but instead a selective and evaluative editorial drawing on ten distinct texts. His scholarship enabled him to participate wholeheartedly in life at Nalanda University in India, and subsequently back in China to undertake his great work of translating sacred texts from Sanskrit into Chinese. Peking University ("Chung Hua" refers to Chinese culture and/or the Republic of China, but a (non-Buddhist) university project was discovered to be using this name. University of California, Los Angeles: creatorOf: Xuanzang, ca. One of the factors resulting in this decadence was the anti-Buddhist imperial persecutions of 845. In both style and content, the Vijnaptimatratasiddhi-sastra symbolizes a superior advance over the earlier Lankavatara Sutra, a basic Faxiang School’s canonical text that sets forth quite a few hallmarks of Mahayana position, such as the eight consciousnesses and the tathagatagarbha (Womb of the Buddha-to-be). One of the foremost themes discussed in the school is the. The school finally opened under the name of Hsuan Chuang College of Humanities and Social Science (玄奘人文社會學院, Xuanzang Renwen Shehui Xueyuan). 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