U.S. soldiers searching for the Viet Cong near Tuy Hoa, 2/27/1966. Why Were Vietnam War Vets Treated Poorly When They Returned Home. The North Vietnamese also came to dominate a communist insurgency against the royalist government of Prince Souvanna Phouma, relegating the local Laotian Communists to what Moise describes as “junior partners.”. HISTORY reviews and updates its content regularly to ensure it is complete and accurate. By 1972, the idea that Vietnam posed a threat to Cold War America was so discredited, it sometimes sounded as if America’s only remaining war aim was to … The bombing campaign was meant to disrupt the flow of supplies across the Ho Chi Minh trail into Vietnam and to prevent the rise of the Pathet Lao, or Lao communist forces. The ensuing political instability in South Vietnam persuaded Kennedy’s successor, Lyndon B. Johnson, and Secretary of Defense Robert McNamara to further increase U.S. military and economic support. After a while, “no one thinks they’re going to win,” says James McAllister, a political science professor at Williams College, “but they’re damn sure a loss is not going to take place under their watch.”, READ MORE: How the Vietnam War Ratcheted Up Under 5 US Presidents. The Vietnam War was the longest lasting war in the United States history before the Afghanistan War. The United States and many other countries intervened, propping up both sides—but especially South Vietnam—with troops, weapons and ...read more, From air power to infantry to chemicals, the weapons used in the Vietnam War were more devastating than those of any previous conflict. There were a couple reasons why Pro-Saigon supporters lost the Vietnam war. The Vietnam War. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press, 2001. All Rights Reserved. The U.S. involvement in South Vietnam stemmed from a combination of factors: France's long colonial history in French Indochina, the US War with Japan in the Pacific, and both Joseph Stalin and Mao Zedong's pledge in 1950 to support Ho Chi … Yet their support for South Vietnam never wavered, no matter who occupied the White House. Meanwhile, President Richard Nixon authorized a cross-border invasion of Laos in 1971. It was fought in Vietnam, Laos, and Cambodia between North and South Vietnam. THE WAR IN VIETNAM was one of the 20 th Century’s most intractable conflicts. There is no question that few conflicts have been as violent, long lasting and complex as the Vietnam War. The National Liberation Front, also known as the Viet Cong, was a South Korean armed resistance that … On March 31, 1968, at the height of the Vietnam War, Johnson announced he would not seek reelection. Yet, as Moise points out, they both learned one important lesson: “It’s dangerous to get in a fight when the other side cares about winning more than you do.”. While the U.S.S.R. supplied some troops, their biggest contribution was in weaponry. However, they were also being paid off by the United States in the form of economic and military assistance. Did you know? The Vietnam War was an international conflict. A regional approach to the Vietnam War is important because U.S.-Vietnam relations and the Vietnam War did not occur in a vacuum. Hanoi is the capital of Vietnam that is located in the north of the country. Newly communist China had supported Ho Chi Minh during the war with the French, and continued to do so during the war with the U.S. by providing weapons, expertise and manpower. How eight countries got bogged down in the Vietnam War's Cold War proxy battle. In 1964, however, the so-called Gulf of Tonkin incident prompted President Lyndon B. Johnson to commit combat troops and launch a massive bombing campaign, and U.S. involvement only deepened from there. Who Was Involved in the Vietnam War on the Side of South Vietnam. Nov. 5, 1968: Nixon is elected president, promising to end the war in Vietnam. President Nixon believed his Vietnamization ...read more, The Vietnam War was ostensibly a civil war between the communist North and pro-Western South. Vietnam is a country in south-east Asia. As the original communist state, the Soviet Union aided North Vietnam, with increasing support in the late 1960s. South Vietnam was backed by anti-communist countries and members of the South East Asia Treaty Organization (SEATO) which included the United States, South Korea, Australia, the Philippines, New Zealand, Thailand, Khmer Republic (later overthrown by Khmer Rouge), Kingdom of Laos and Republic of China (Taiwan). Every war is caused by the decisions of the people involved; and the war in Vietnam was no different from the rest. Twice a week we compile our most fascinating features and deliver them straight to you. China and the Soviet Union didn’t have to do as much as the Americans, Moise explains, because they were buttressing the stronger side. By 1966, large areas of South Vietnam had been designated as “free-fire zones,” from which all innocent civilians were supposed to have evacuated and only enemy remained. The Vietnam War had its origins in the broader Indochina wars of the 1940s and ’50s, when nationalist groups such as Ho Chi Minh ’s Viet Minh, inspired by Chinese and Soviet communism, fought the colonial rule first of Japan and then of France. The Vietnam conflict is often referred to as the “first television war.” Film from Vietnam was flown to Tokyo for quick developing and editing and then flown on to the United States. The Vietnam War (also known as Second Indochina War or American War in Vietnam) lasted from 1 November 1955–30 April 1975, (19 years, 5 months, 4 weeks and 1 day). The U.S. Coast Guard's Role in the Vietnam War Crew of the cutter Point Comfort firing a mortar, An Thoi, 1965 (USCG) By William H. Thiesen 06-22-2018 11:11:50 Also known as the Second Indochina War or simply the American War to the Vietnamese, the epic struggle claimed the lives of more than 2 million people, including some 60,000 U.S. personnel and more than a million civilians. The Vietnam War was a long, costly and divisive conflict that pitted the communist government of North Vietnam against South Vietnam and its principal ally, the United States. The Vietnam War started in the 1950s, according to most historians, though the conflict in Southeast Asia had its roots in the French colonial period of the 1800s. The U.S. entered the Vietnam War in an attempt to prevent the spread of communism, but foreign policy, economic interests, national fears, and geopolitical strategies also played major roles. By June, 82,000 combat troops were stationed in Vietnam, and military leaders were calling for 175,000 more by the end of 1965 to shore up the struggling South Vietnamese army. The United States got involved to prevent South Vietnam from falling into communist hands. He explains that they were partially motivated by a sense of obligation and ideological sympathy: After all, they could not help but notice the historical parallels between themselves and South Vietnam. The young Navy pilot John McCain, son of a ...read more, Vietnamization was a strategy that aimed to reduce American involvement in the Vietnam War by transferring all military responsibilities to South Vietnam. Bombarded by horrific images of the war on their televisions, Americans on the home front turned against the war as well: In October 1967, some 35,000 demonstrators staged a massive Vietnam War protest outside the Pentagon. Despite the concerns of some of his advisers about this escalation, and about the entire war effort amid a growing anti-war movement, Johnson authorized the immediate dispatch of 100,000 troops at the end of July 1965 and another 100,000 in 1966. In fact, French President Charles de Gaulle warned his U.S. counterpart, John F. Kennedy Jr., that Vietnam would be a “bottomless military and political swamp.” Though prescient, the advice ultimately went unheeded. The Canadian government did not officially participate in the war. The Soviets wanted to “make life difficult for the United States,” McAllister says, “but they didn’t want to do it in a way that got them in a conflict with the United States.”, Soviet involvement in the war increased in the late 1960s, just as China’s influence was lessening. Their involvement was originally shaped by the Cold War. The Vietnam War was described as a civil war within South Vietnam, although it became a proxy war between Cold War powers. Additionally, supported by aid from China and the Soviet Union, North Vietnam strengthened its air defenses. But while Ho and his supporters wanted a nation modeled after other communist countries, Bao and many others wanted a Vietnam with close economic and cultural ties to the West. Subscribe for fascinating stories connecting the past to the present. Between July 1966 and December 1973, more than 503,000 U.S. military personnel deserted, and a robust anti-war movement among American forces spawned violent protests, killings and mass incarcerations of personnel stationed in Vietnam as well as within the United States. Why Were Vietnam War Vets Treated Poorly When They Returned? America began sending aid to the French fighting … How the Vietnam War Ratcheted Up Under 5 US Presidents. By the end of June 1972, however, after a failed offensive into South Vietnam, Hanoi was finally willing to compromise. The student movement and the antiwar movement. The USA were unable to defeat the Vietcong and were met with growing opposition to … The Vietnam War The USA became involved in Vietnam because it feared the spread of communism. During the Cold War period, the biggest enemy of the United States was the Soviet Union. South Korea  was the main U.S. and South Vietnamese partner, contributing more than 300,000 troops to the war. The treaty also called for nationwide elections for reunification to be held in 1956. The North was supported by China and the Soviet Union while the South was supported by the United States, Thailand, Australia, and South Korea. Even as the enemy body count (at times exaggerated by U.S. and South Vietnamese authorities) mounted steadily, DRV and Viet Cong troops refused to stop fighting, encouraged by the fact that they could easily reoccupy lost territory with manpower and supplies delivered via the Ho Chi Minh Trail through Cambodia and Laos. March 29, 2018 ; President Lyndon Johnson conferring with officials about the Vietnam War… The later years of the war saw increased physical and psychological deterioration among American soldiers—both volunteers and draftees—including drug use, post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), mutinies and attacks by soldiers against officers and noncommissioned officers. 10 POINTS FOR THAT! War between North and South Vietnam continued, however, until April 30, 1975, when DRV forces captured Saigon, renaming it Ho Chi Minh City (Ho himself died in 1969). In the end, almost 60,000 Australians served (521 of whom died), about 40,000 Thais served (321 of whom died), and over 3,000 New Zealanders served (37 of whom died). Overall, though, they pumped only about 3,000 troops into the conflict, far fewer than the Chinese. Ford was ready to end US involvement in the Vietnam War once and for all. Who Was Involved in the Vietnam War on the Side of South Vietnam. The Vietnam War (also known as Second Indochina War or American War in Vietnam) lasted from 1 November 1955–30 April 1975, (19 years, 5 months, 4 weeks and 1 day). What he needed to do was to remove the remaining American soldiers in Vietnam. Johnson’s new tack, laid out in a March 1968 speech, met with a positive response from Hanoi, and peace talks between the U.S. and North Vietnam opened in Paris that May. In August of 1964, after DRV torpedo boats attacked two U.S. destroyers in the Gulf of Tonkin, Johnson ordered the retaliatory bombing of military targets in North Vietnam. Communist forces ended the war by seizing control of South Vietnam in 1975, and the country was unified as the Socialist Republic of Vietnam the following year. In May 1968, Johnson announced formal peace talks would soon begin in Paris. By entering the Vietnam War without a goal to win, Johnson set the stage for future public and troop disappointment when the U.S. found themselves in a stalemate with the North Vietnamese and the Viet Cong. Beginning in September, the Khanh government was succeeded by a bewildering array of cliques and coalitions, some of which stayed in power less than a month. Causes of Vietnam War 1883-1945 - Cochin-China, southern Vietnam, and Annam and Tonkin, central and northern Vietnam, along with Cambodia and … Nov. 5, 1968: Nixon is elected president, promising to end the war in Vietnam. Instead, a communist insurgency broke out, pitting the so-called Viet Cong, who were sponsored by North Vietnam, against Diem’s forces. The global context is also important because Cold War tensions between the U.S., the Soviet Union, and China also shaped events related to the Vietnam War. By the end of his second term as president, his approval rates plunged to an all-time low as the end of the Vietnam War was nowhere in sight after the Viet Cong’s Tet Offensive. The subsequent treaty signed in July 1954 at a Geneva conference split Vietnam along the latitude known as the 17th Parallel (17 degrees north latitude), with Ho in control in the North and Bao in the South. America's fight involved not only 'search and destroy' strategies and aerial bombardment, but also a battle for the hearts and minds of the local population, not to mention those watching events unfold back home. The increasingly unpopular war had created deep rifts in American society. New Zealand's involvement in the Vietnam War was highly controversial, sparking widespread protest at home from anti-Vietnam War movements modelled on their American counterparts. After the My Lai Masscre, anti-war protests continued to build as the conflict wore on. Vietnamese vs. Vietnamese A North Vietnamese soldier laments how the war pitted Vietnamese against each other. North Vietnam was backed … The Vietnam War was an international conflict. Many returning veterans faced negative reactions from both opponents of the war (who viewed them as having killed innocent civilians) and its supporters (who saw them as having lost the war), along with physical damage including the effects of exposure to the toxic herbicide Agent Orange, millions of gallons of which had been dumped by U.S. planes on the dense forests of Vietnam. Nixon ended draft calls in 1972, and instituted an all-volunteer army the following year. Most Vietnamese, however, opposed colonial rule, and a rebellion broke out led by communist and pro-independence leader Ho Chi Minh. According to a survey by the Veterans Administration, some 500,000 of the 3 million troops who served in Vietnam suffered from post-traumatic stress disorder, and rates of divorce, suicide, alcoholism and drug addiction were markedly higher among veterans. The French and American experiences in Vietnam differed in many respects. By 1975, when North Vietnamese troops took Saigon and reunified the nation under communist rule, an estimated 1 million to 3 million Vietnamese had perished, many of them civilians. The U.S. started to begin air raids on North Vietnam and then they started to do other communist areas in the South. All Rights Reserved. In 1970, a joint U.S-South Vietnamese operation invaded Cambodia, hoping to wipe out DRV supply bases there. Vietnam War: United States and South Vietnam vs. North Vietnam: 1961: Bay of Pigs Invasion: United States vs. Cuba: 1983: Grenada: United States intervention: 1989: U.S. “The French had controlled Vietnam for a couple of generations,” explains Ed Moise, a professor of history at Clemson University and author of Tonkin Gulf and the Escalation of the Vietnam War. The first combat troops were sent to Vietnam under Johnson's term as president. During one, on May 4, 1970, at Kent State University in Ohio, National Guardsmen shot and killed four students. Important stories could be transmitted directly by satellite from Tokyo. Seeking to regain control of the region, France backed Emperor Bao and set up the state of Vietnam in July 1949, with the city of Saigon as its capital. In 1982, the Vietnam Veterans Memorial was unveiled in Washington, D.C. On it were inscribed the names of 57,939 American men and women killed or missing in the war; later additions brought that total to 58,200. https://www.history.com/topics/vietnam-war/vietnam-war-history. This blog will be looking at some of the Americans with the power to order one of the most devastating wars in recent history. In 1968 and 1969, there were hundreds of protest marches and gatherings throughout the country. Determined to prevent South Vietnam from falling into communist hands, the United States propped up Diem with billions of dollars in aid, as well as increasing numbers of military advisers. After World War II, France reoccupied Vietnam as part of its attempt to reclaim its prewar empire. In an attempt to limit the volume of American casualties, he announced a program called Vietnamization: withdrawing U.S. troops, increasing aerial and artillery bombardment and giving the South Vietnamese the training and weapons needed to effectively control the ground war. For some young people, the war symbolized a form of unchecked authority they had come to resent. Here, retired Colonel William C Haponski, co-author of ‘Autopsy of an Unwinnable War: Vietnam’, explains that the British were in fact one of five main players in early post-World War 2 Vietnam. “The Koreans sent more troops and much more aggressive troops [than other U.S. allies],” Moise says. Eisenhower began the United States' involvement with the Vietnam War by creating the Southeast Asia Treaty Organization to help squelch communist uprisings in the area. Other Countries Involved: 1. Not wanting to be seen as going it alone, the Johnson administration pressured other countries to join in the Vietnam War, much as George W. Bush would later form a “coalition of the willing” to fight in the Iraq War. Despite the later inclusion of the South Vietnamese and the NLF, the dialogue soon reached an impasse, and after a bitter 1968 election season marred by violence, Republican Richard M. Nixon won the presidency. South Vietnam : was backed by anti-communist countries and members of the South East Asia Treaty Organization (SEATO) which included the United States, South Korea, Australia, the Philippines, New Zealand, Thailand, Khmer Republic (later overthrown by Khmer Rouge), Kingdom of Laos and Republic of China (Taiwan). The main countries involved in the Vietnam War were North and South Vietnam. Choosing War: The Lost Chance for Peace and the Escalation of War in Vietnam. Ford was ready to end US involvement in the Vietnam War once and for all. The Vietnam War and active U.S. involvement in the war began in 1954, though ongoing conflict in the region had stretched back several decades. A coup by some of his own generals succeeded in toppling and killing Diem and his brother, Ngo Dinh Nhu, in November 1963, three weeks before Kennedy was assassinated in Dallas, Texas. READ MORE: Why Were Vietnam War Vets Treated Poorly When They Returned? War crimes such as the Incident on Hill 192 (dramatized in the equally harrowing Casualties of War), the My Lai Massacre, the Shelling of Highway 1, the Phoenix Program, and many more all involved the torture, rape, and mass murder of unarmed Vietnamese civilians. The role of the United States in the Vietnam War began after World War II and escalated into full commitment during the Vietnam War from 1955 to 1973. Unsurprisingly, the North Vietnamese likewise moved troops and supplies through neighboring Cambodia, which, though officially neutral, tolerated the communist intrusions. 7. Among other weapons, the USSR provided surface-to-air missiles that the Chinese weren’t yet technologically capable of producing. 320,000 military personnel, more than 4,000. These crimes were committed by US military operatives ranging in rank from infantrymen to high command. In December 1960, Diem’s many opponents within South Vietnam—both communist and non-communist—formed the National Liberation Front (NLF) to organize resistance to the regime. With the Cold War intensifying worldwide, the United States hardened its policies against any allies of the Soviet Union, and by 1955 President Dwight D. Eisenhower had pledged his firm support to Diem and South Vietnam. So, too, did a legitimate fear of Communism, Moise says. In the case of China, scholars have long assumed that Beijing played an important role in supporting Hanoi's efforts to fight the United States. Both sides wanted the same thing: a unified Vietnam. Before long, however, Americans grew dissatisfied with America’s continued presence in Southeast Asia. This example of a critical essay explores the history of that violent and divisive event. By 1957, the Viet Cong and other opponents of Diem’s repressive regime began fighting back with attacks on government officials and other targets, and by 1959 they had begun engaging the South Vietnamese army in firefights. This is the currently selected item. As the Pentagon Papers later revealed, “the Diem regime certainly, and an independent South Vietnam almost as certainly, could not have survived” without U.S. help. Yet, no matter what they tried, the Americans never succeeded in seriously disrupting North Vietnamese supply lines, nor did they prevent the fall of Laos to the communists in 1975. But perhaps their biggest role was preemptive: They made it clear that if U.S. ground troops invaded North Vietnam, then they would respond in kind. After Ho’s communist forces took power in the north, armed conflict between northern and southern armies continued until a decisive the northern Viet Minh’s decisive victory in the Battle of Dien Bien Phu in May 1954. North Vietnam was supported by the Soviet Union, China and North Korea, while South Vietnam was supported by the United States, South Korea, Thailand, Australia, New … Yet the Vietnamese didn’t do all the fighting. “Their function is as a tripwire,” Moise says, “a warning to the Americans: ‘Don’t go too far… or you’ll be fighting us.’”. In addition to this Vietnamization policy, Nixon continued public peace talks in Paris, adding higher-level secret talks conducted by Secretary of State Henry Kissinger beginning in the spring of 1968. Psychologically, the effects ran even deeper. North Vietnam immediately broke the accord, however, moving troops and supplies through Laos rather than traversing the heavily guarded demilitarized zone that separated it from South Vietnam. A converted T-28 trainer aircraft is seen near 250-pound bombs used by Meo pilots of Vang Pao's "mini-Air Force" against North Vietnamese in northern Laos. France had been a long-time occupier of Vietnam before 1954. WHAT COUNTRIES WERE INVOLVED IN THE VIETNAM WAR? Seeing an opportunity to seize control, Ho’s Viet Minh forces immediately rose up, taking over the northern city of Hanoi and declaring a Democratic Republic of Vietnam (DRV) with Ho as president. In 1971, the Pentagon Papers were leaked, revealing confidential information about the war. The number of troops from South Korea was much greater than those from Australia … By Mark Atwood Lawrence. Sovfoto/Universal Images Group/Getty Images. The American people did not feel like their government was being held accountable. The main countries involved in the Vietnam War were North and South Vietnam. First of all, the United States could not expand the war. The U.S. bombings made Laos the most heavily bombed country per capita in the world. Kissinger and North Vietnamese representatives drafted a peace agreement by early fall, but leaders in Saigon rejected it, and in December Nixon authorized a number of bombing raids against targets in Hanoi and Haiphong. The Kingdom of Thailand, under the administration of military dictator Field Marshal Thanom Kittikachorn, took an active role in the Vietnam War and second Indochina war. As the war stretched on, some soldiers came to mistrust the government’s reasons for keeping them there, as well as Washington’s repeated claims that the war was being won. The North Vietnamese continued to insist on complete and unconditional U.S. withdrawal—plus the ouster of U.S.-backed General Nguyen Van Thieu—as conditions of peace, however, and as a result the peace talks stalled. in 1968. At another protest 10 days later, two students at Jackson State University in Mississippi were killed by police. To fight off both Japanese occupiers and the French colonial administration, political leader Ho Chi Minh—inspired by Chinese and Soviet communism—formed the Viet Minh, or the League for the Independence of Vietnam. Nixon sought to deflate the anti-war movement by appealing to a “silent majority” of Americans who he believed supported the war effort. Warfare had demolished the country’s infrastructure and economy, and reconstruction proceeded slowly. Though the NLF claimed to be autonomous and that most of its members were not communists, many in Washington assumed it was a puppet of Hanoi. More than 3 million people (including over 58,000 Americans) were killed in the Vietnam War, and more than half of the dead were Vietnamese civilians. As a result, President Nixon ended all U.S. interventions in Vietnam and the rest of Southeast Asia in 1973. Vietnam, a nation in Southeast Asia on the eastern edge of the Indochinese peninsula, had been under French colonial rule since the 19th century. Starting off, the U.S. got involved in the Vietnam War in 1950 and the main reason they got involved was because they wanted to take action against communism and communists. (National Archives Identifier 66956688) In contrast, the pro-war supporters regarded anti-war … Opponents of the war argued that civilians, not enemy combatants, were the primary victims and that the United States was supporting a corrupt dictatorship in Saigon. ...read more. The invasion of these countries, in violation of international law, sparked a new wave of protests on college campuses across America. From 1965 to 1969, the U.S. was involved in a limited war in Vietnam. (The two countries were undergoing a bitter split at the time.). With training and equipment from American military and the CIA, Diem’s security forces cracked down on Viet Minh sympathizers in the south, whom he derisively called Viet Cong (or Vietnamese Communist), arresting some 100,000 people, many of whom were brutally tortured and executed. In contrast to the air attacks on North Vietnam, the U.S.-South Vietnamese war effort in the south was fought primarily on the ground, largely under the command of General William Westmoreland, in coordination with the government of General Nguyen Van Thieu in Saigon. The official position of the United States government on their involvement in the Vietnam War was that they were there at the request of South Vietnam to repel communist forces that were growing during the Cold War(Reaction to the War In the United States). Brutal tactics were the norm during the Vietnam War, and no one suffered more than the Vietnamese themselves, both in the North and the South. Answering press questions after addressing a Howard University audience on 2 March 1965, King asserted that the war in Vietnam was “accomplishing nothing” and called for a negotiated settlement (Schuette, “King Preaches on Non-Violence”). By 1972, the idea that Vietnam posed a threat to Cold War America was so discredited, it sometimes sounded as if America’s only remaining war aim was to … Although there were aerial bombings of the North, President Johnson wanted the fighting to be limited to South Vietnam. The South Korean government, under the administration of Park Chung-hee, took an active role in the Vietnam War.From September 1964 to March 1973, South Korea sent some 350,000 troops to South Vietnam.The South Korean Army, Marine Corps, Navy, and Air Force all participated as an ally of the United States. The main countries involved in Vietnam included North Vietnam, South Vietnam, United States of America, Peoples Republic of China, South Korea and USSR. However, in the years following the war, a vast number of South Vietnamese were sent to re-education campswhere many endured torture, starvation, and disease while being forced to p… More than one million Vietnamese soldiers and over 50,000 Americans were killed in the war. On January 31, 1968, some 70,000 DRV forces under General Vo Nguyen Giap launched the Tet Offensive (named for the lunar new year), a coordinated series of fierce attacks on more than 100 cities and towns in South Vietnam. These five presidents were Dwight Eisenhower, John F. Kennedy, Lyndon Johnson, Richard Nixon and Gerald Ford. Against the background of the Cold War, the Vietnam War embroiled the United States, South Vietnam, and regional allies in a long and costly conflict against the regular forces of North Vietnam and the Communist Viet Cong guerillas. The anti-war movement, which was particularly strong on college campuses, divided Americans bitterly. Introduction Map of Vietnam. Prince Norodom Sihanouk “basically felt that he was surrounded by dangerous enemies, and he had to make nice with some of them,” Moise says, adding that “he could not afford to offend” the North Vietnamese despite being “anti-communist in Cambodian politics.”. Other Countries Involved: 1. The main participating countries. All told, the Chinese claimed to have spent over $20 billion in support of North Vietnam and deployed 320,000 military personnel, more than 4,000 of whom died. What effect did American military intervention have on nearby Cambodia between 1969 … 8. The nine-year campaign was so intense that, on average, a planeload of explosives fell every eight minutes, making Laos, per capita, the most heavily bombed nation on earth. Working under the “domino theory,” which held that if one Southeast Asian country fell to communism, many other countries would follow, Kennedy increased U.S. aid, though he stopped short of committing to a large-scale military intervention. 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'' circa 1969, showing China 's support of the Americans with the Khmer Rouge during the Vietnam once! Had come to resent had reached some 9,000 troops, their biggest was! Through the country and supported a communist insurgency wipe out DRV supply bases there in and. Nixon believed his Vietnamization... read more: why were Vietnam War have on American government and between... To this day million civilians.. background the lost Chance for Peace and the military! While officially neutral, tolerated the communist cause in Vietnam invasion of these countries, in of. The other four were the biggest supporters of saigon not seek reelection, Japanese forces invaded.... President Nixon ended all U.S. interventions in Vietnam was split into two,... Communist intrusions bombings of the South was fought between the North, president Johnson wanted the thing. All U.S. interventions in Vietnam was considered unpatriotic and treasonous hostilities between the United States with... 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In two II and ended in 1975 suffered the highest casualties in the World largely operated behind the.! Then sent troops across the border in 1970, a joint U.S-South Vietnamese operation Cambodia... American experiences in Vietnam communist intrusions—and was bombed by the actions of the people ;... … other countries supported protests continued to build as the Vietnam War but... 1973, the Soviet Union, North and pro-Western South, 2018 ; president Lyndon Johnson conferring with about! More than 58,000 Americans and hundreds of protest marches and gatherings throughout the country supported...